Actually I participated in ARM 2013 selection but i don't elected. It's okay, that's not the point that i really reached for.
Beside of that, i learned how to make a good paper and presentation also.
At this moment I have to be brave to speak in English, anyway my English was not good enough. But i tried :)
This is my paper that i made for this election. Hopefully it can worthwhile for you guys.
‘Conservation Effort Through Increase Ecotourism in Merapi Volcano Mountain, Yogyakarta-Central Java, Indonesia’
By : Dayu Kemalasari Soraya
Faculty of Forestry Universitas Gadjah Mada
Southern slope of Merapi Volcano Mountain is the touristic area fulfill with the beautiful nature panorama, biodiversity and social culture potentials. Nowadays, such various potentials not yet intensifically developed, so some crucial conservation problems still occur in that area. Thus ecotourism development in the form of special interest tour package could be the answer to force the environmental care-based tourism activity. ecotourism potentials in the southern slope of Merapi Volcano Mountain can be developed in the form of special interest tour package, which all stakeholders in that area could be contribute in it. Wishes in the future, not only local community economic empowerment could be done but also helping the physical and non physical environment conservation in that area.
Keyword : Nature potential, Conservation efforts, Local Society, Ecotourism, Merapi Volcano Mountain- Indonesia.
Tourism is one of the sectors that globally has faced the fastest economic growth rates throughout the last decade. Furthermore, for many developing countries, it has become a prime source of foreign exchange inflows. At the same time, tourism has a generally low negative impact on the environment compared to other productive sectors such as agriculture, cattle ranching and mining. With growing global pressures on forest resources and the search for models of sustainable development and sustainable forest use, it has thus been natural to look towards tourism in forest areas as a potential ‘win-win’ component in the design of conservation strategies and practices (Wunder, 1999).
Tourism directed towards natural forests can be viewed as another element within the array of ‘non-timber forest benefits’, complemented by other forest services, such as watershed protection, carbon storage and erosion control, and by the exploitation of various non-timber forest products. As an, in principle, non-consumptive use of the forest, it is a potentially well-suited element for conservation. Moreover, the tourist appeal of a natural site (and hence its income-generating potential) tends to be closely related to its conservation level. Finally, unlike other forest services that are often valued too late, i.e., when forest loss has already led to visible environmental costs, nature tourism is able to produce ‘in time’ new and additional financial resources. These resources may provide important conservation incentives for the relevant natural resource managers, by increasing the gains from conservation-based options, compared to competing, non-sustainable land uses (forest degradation and/or conversion) (Wunder, 1999).
Human and ecosystem are two parts that could not be separated one to another. Both are need each other. Human needs the nature for the place to live, the place to fulfill all needs that originated from potentials that existed in the nature, and vice versa. Nature as the place for humankind needs human with their wisdom in order to maintain its right (Merchant, 2005).
A principal criterion for classifying a tourism operation as ‘ecotourism’ is that local residents at the site should receive substantial economic benefits, which serve both to raise local living standards and as enhanced incentives for nature conservation. At Merapi Volcano Mountain stored great potential to develop ecotourism based conservation efforts implemented by local communities.
1. The Potential of Merapi Volcano Mountain.
Merapi Volcano Mountain has great potential for amazing natural scenery, biodiversity and socio-cultural resources. Merapi has three parameters that support the attraction of this place, such as uniqueness, beauty and coolness. The uniqueness of Merapi can be proved by the discovery of beautiful endemic species that is the Javanese hawk-eagle. The beauty of this mountain include views of diversity, visual contrast, a panoramic view of the amazing nature and the mystery of the value stored in it. In the region have relatively cool temperatures allowing the viewer to feel the different temperatures as in their city.
2. Conservation effort
While some see tourism as the route to economic development, more
recently it has also been seen as a tool for conservation. Given that half the world’s protected areas are in mountains, the potential for ecotourism development is significant (Panos, 2002). Conservation too has to achieve a balance between local and wider needs if it is to succeed. Increasingly, it is about seeing people as an integral part of a mountain ecosystem rather than excluding them from certain ‘protected areas’. The more traditional approach did not always recognise the reliance of local populations on a protected area, either for forest products or grazing. Biosphere reserves recognise the key role of people in areas of high biodiversity. They consist of core, buffer and transition zones that meet the need for different levels of protection as well as for human activity in each zone. To ensure that mountain people do not have to make difficult choices between their own survival and that of mountain ecosystems, conservation has to be materially beneficial for them – for example through a rights and royalties system; tourism and trophy hunting; the cultivation and sale of medicinal plants. This ethic requires that human benefits be derived in a sustainable manner and recognizes that human uses need to be reconciled with intrinsic and necessary ecosystemic functions and structures (Laarman et al, 1991).
3. Local society
The relation between local society and ecosystem is mutually related. The ecosystem gives benefit to human and vice versa. Nevertheless, the ecosystem management is not value-free from the knowledge owned by humankind upon the ecosystem itself, including the knowledge of traditional ecology from certain community. The traditional ecological knowledge is also owned by local people who live around Merapi Volcano Mountain, Yogyakarta. Issue related to traditional ecological knowledge then explain on how local people around Merapi Volcano Mountain utilizes and manages the ecosystem potentials like ecotourism at that place. The important things in Merapi Volcano Mountain include both ecological issue as well as social issue.
Further research and development in mountain regions must involve local people. In many senses they can be considered the real ‘experts’ on mountain development and should be involved in planning and decision-making. The stakes are high, not just for those who live in mountains, but for the billions of people who depend on their resources, and for the global ecosystem.
Currently the emergence of trends and new developments in the world of tourism is characterized by the development of lifestyle and a new awareness of a deeper appreciation for the values of human relationships with the natural environment. The new development is specifically indicated by the forms of involvement in the activities of travelers off the field (out-door), concern for the problems of ecology and nature conservation, advancement of science and education, emphasis and appreciation for the aesthetic values, needs development self or personal as well as a desire to interact deeply with local communities (Ceballos, 1991).
The great potential of this area until now there has been intensively developed so that there is a wide range of issues concerning conservation. For the development of ecotourism in the form of special interest tourism package is expected to be one of the answers to encourage environmentally sound tourism activities. The potential that there would be very useful if developed and certainly can attract tourists to visit. The most important thing is to make the subjects were able to develop tourism in the area of Merapi Volcano Mountain is not just the object of spectacle tourists give more benefits to visitors.
Developing ecotourism of Merapi Volcano Mountain should be done in advance conservation efforts on the region to support the preservation of nature, beauty and uniqueness stored inside in this area. With good conservation management in that area, it can add to the attractiveness of the Merapi Volcano Mountain. Therefore, the development of ecotourism can be well coupled with conservation efforts in support of the preservation of nature. Increasing ecotourism in that area indirectly affect local communities in, for example it can improve the lives of local people. The visitors are not only doing recreation, but they can also enjoy the ecotourism recreation based environment by being able to interact with the surrounding local communities. Thus, Merapi volcano Mountain is expected can be a charm to attract visitors in ecotourism activities in the surrounding area.
Ceballos, L, H. 1991. Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas. CNPPA 35th Working Session, UICN, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.
Laarman, J.G. and Durst, P.B. 1991. Nature tourism as a tool for economic development and conservation of natural resources. College of Forest Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Merchant, Carolyn. 2005. Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World. Routledge. New York.
Panos. 2002. High Stakes The future for mountain societies. The Panos Institute. London.
Wunder, Sven. 1999. Promoting Forest Conservation through Ecotourism Income (A case study from the Ecuadorian Amazon region). CIFOR Indonesia. Bogor.